Mauritania is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Western Sahara in the north. Algeria to the north east and Mali to the east and Senegal to the southwest. There was an ancient kingdom of Mauritania which became a province of the Roman Empire. Today’s Mauritania spreads southwards beyond where the kingdom was. Nouakchott is the capital of Mauritania and it is on the Atlantic coast. The number of individual languages listed for Mauritania is 6. Of those, all are living languages. In the preamble of the Constitution of Mauritania, fundamental freedoms are defended. The constitution is only available in English and French.
Trusting in the omnipotence of Allah, the Mauritanian people proclaims its will to guarantee the integrity of its territory, its independence, and its national unity and to take upon itself its free political economic and social development.
Believing strongly in its spiritual values and in the spreading of its civilization, it also solemnly proclaims its attachment to Islam and to the principles of democracy as they have been defined by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10 Dec 1948 and by the African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights of 28 June 1981 as well as in the other international conventions which Mauritania has signed.
Judging that liberty, equality, and the dignity of Man may be assured only in a society which establishes the primacy of law, taking care to create the durable conditions for a harmonious social development respectful of the precepts of Islam, the sole source of law, but responsive as well to the exigencies of the modern world, the Mauritanian people proclaims in particular the inalienable guarantee of the following rights and principles:
- the right to equality;
- the fundamental freedoms and rights of human beings;
- the right of property;
- political freedom and freedom of labor unions;
- economic and social rights; and
- the rights attached to the family, the basic unit of Islamic society.
Conscious of the necessity of strengthening its ties with brother peoples, the Mauritanian people, a Muslim, African, and Arab people, proclaims that it will work for the achievement of the unity of the Greater Maghreb of the Arab Nation and of Africa and for the consolidation of peace in the world.