In antiquity, Somalia was an important centre for commerce the world. Indeed the people of Somalia are recognized in the Horn of Africa and the eastern African region as formidable traders. Even as a failed state, Somalia makes money. The country’s economy thrives on telecommunication, livestock and money remittances from the diaspora Somali who are in vast numbers all over the world. Somali creative writers are active and they have seven centres of PEN for the defence of Freedom of Expression in different parts of the world. fabled land of Puntland, or the land of God, was mythically located in Somalia. Yet Somalia is today one of the world’s most violent states. Violence and instability have brought in more poverty in addition to and exceeding the suffering contributed to by Somalia's inclement desert weather- The country is devastated and under the weak TFG, or Transistional Federal Government.  Puntland separated itself and is not recognized by all countries but has remained more peaceful than the rest of Somalia. Named after its peoples, Somalia which during the Middle Ages had several powerful empires does not appear close to achieving peace in the 21st century. In the late nineteenth century, the British and Italians gained control of parts of the coast, and established British Somaliland. Somalia had succeeded in repulsing the British Empire four times but the Empire used planes against the Dervish State which was fighting back. Italy also acquired control in parts from 1927. In 1941 the land was turned over to Britain. In 1960, the two regions formed an independent Somali Republic. In 1969, a coup thrust Mohamed Siad Barre to power. Somalia now a Democratic Republic would never be the same again. Since outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there have been great efforts based in Nairobi to bring different factions to make peace in Somalia but to no avail.

Since the beginning of 2012, the Kenya Navy has gone into Somalia to exterminate the guerilla Al Shabaab which controls Somalia but is now spreading over the Eastern region of Africa.  AMISOM, or African Union Mission to Somalia, created in 2007, United Nations (United States) and other allies, including Kenya have made efforts for a long time in this. Ethiopia invaded Somalia and failed. It is difficult to see why Kenya is doing it now but irritation after the kidnapping of aid workers and others was the straw that broke the camel's back. Reporting for Reuters, Aaron Maasho is succint on this The politics of why Kenya took this move are controversial but an outside hand in it is visible in the name of the global fight against terror. In retaliation, Nairobi has been threatened by Al Shabaab many times since Octobrer 2011, when the incursion took place. Consequently, several people have lost their lives to more than five grenade attacks.  Naturally, Kenyan Somalis are mainly settled in the northern area bordering Kenya and Somalia and in the big cities and towns like all other ethnic groups. This population is largely related to the Somali of Somalia. The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government controls only a small part of the country. An election is anticipated in 2012 when the mandate of the TSG which works only in parts of Somalia ceases to have the mandate. Somalia lies in the eastern-most part of Africa. It is bordered by Kenya to the south west, Djibouti to the northwestthe Gulf of Aden with Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west. It has the longest coastline on the Indian Ocean in Africa. The coastline is teeming with unusual fish and trawl fishing is carried out by powerful nations of the world and the Somali pirates have seen this as a threat and an opportunity. Somalia is a marvellous country, full of art and visionaries, if only its peoples would recognize unity in diversity where politics is concerned, she is still placed to be a centre of world trade and much more. 

5 newly added works in Somalia